Blog & Information

Michigan Supreme Court: July 31, 2018, Court Interpreter Written English Exam

Notice from Michigan Supreme Court:

All uncertified interpreters are required to take and pass a written exam before they may take the oral proficiency exam. The 135 multiple-choice questions are designed to measure basic, general English language proficiency, and court and ethics knowledge. This helps to predict whether candidates are ready for the oral exam. Candidates for all languages take the written exam at the same time. At this time, there is no fee to take the written exam.

The next written exam will be given at the Hall of Justice in Lansing on Tuesday, July 31, 2018. Approximately two weeks before the exam, you will receive your registration confirmation, the scheduled time of the written exam, and travel information and parking directions. This information will be sent to you by email.

The application deadline is June 29, 2018. Your application must be postmarked or faxed no later than June 29, and will be accepted on a first-come, first-served basis.

The following links may be helpful in preparing for the exams:

Overview of the written exam, sample questions, and resources (exam registration form is found on page 19)

Code of Professional Conduct for Foreign Language Court Interpreters in Michigan Courts 

Links to videos that demonstrate interpreting and how to handle some situations (right side of page – Video Clips)

Michigan’s Courts Learning Center for information about the court system

National Center for State Courts (NCSC)

If you require special accommodation due to a disability, you must request the accommodation in advance. In order to do that, please contact Denice Purves at languageaccess@courts.mi.gov

Please note: No person will be allowed to take the same written exam version more than once within a

12-month period.

How to Overcome Test Anxiety: Tips for Interpreters

When interpreters prepare for interpreting exams, we practice interpreting. But what are we doing to practice controlling our test anxiety? As someone who’s taken many interpreting exams (and didn’t pass them all) and prepared many interpreters for exams, there are a few things I’ve learned about managing test anxiety. Test anxiety can affect your performance in an exam to the extent that you fail, so it’s worth considering.

Anxiety can come in the form of fear, no matter what the stakes may be. When I took my healthcare certification exam, as a seasoned healthcare interpreter I was sure I’d pass. But there was that lingering thought: What if I actually fail? What if I’m exposed as a fraud and I realize I’m not actually competent to do the work I’ve been doing for the last decade? When I took my court certification exam for the second time, I just wanted to get it over with and couldn’t bear the thought of failing again. When I took my grad school exit exams, the weight of knowing that I wouldn’t graduate if I didn’t pass felt physically crushing at times. Sound familiar? I’ve got some tips to get you through it.

Practice: When you sit down to do your interpreting practice, take the opportunity to practice your anxiety management as well. As much as possible, practice in a setting that is like the testing environment. Somewhere where you’re not too comfortable. In grad school, this was easy for me because I practiced in the interpreting lab, which was the very space I knew I’d be taking my exams. But in addition to the physical testing environment, I also made an effort to get into the mindset of exam day, and I’d go through all the things I might be feeling.

When I was preparing for my court and healthcare certification exam, I didn’t have the advantage of practicing in the actual physical space where I’d be taking the test. But you can do some things to emulate the environment, like sitting up straight at a table, timing yourself and recording yourself, making sure that you are doing your practice without stopping. That means no stopping and starting 30 seconds into the practice, five thousand times, whenever you feel you’ve messed up! Yes, practicing the same small part over and over can be a helpful part of practice, but your practice should include simulating the test, which means doing the interpretation from beginning to end in just one go.

Before you begin your practice, take a deep breath. Engage in something that works to calm yourself. Whatever it is, do it every day, every time you practice, well BEFORE the day of your exam. That way, when exam time comes, you’ll already have trained yourself to calm your nerves.

Noting things: Not taking actual notes, but just making mental notes to yourself about what’s happening when you feel anxious, in an objective way. I have a lot of trouble falling for that “hook” – that thought that yanks me into a downward spiral of panic. For example, when I start thinking “ohnothistestisimpossible and Idon’tthinkIcandoit and Ican’tdoanythingright and Ican’tcontrolmybreathing and nowmymouthisdryandmyheartisracing and everyonewillbedisappointedinmewhenIfail and they’reallgoingtolaughatme, I need a figurative hammer to smash that downward spiral. Simply stating in my mind what is happening does the trick for me. So instead of falling for that hook, I simply tell myself, “Now I’m taking a test.” That’s it. And it breaks that cycle so I can focus on the task at hand.

Self-compassion: Having a positive mantra can be helpful. When I’m trying to find some positive aspect of a difficult situation, mine has been, “I’m learning so much.” I use it a lot since I always seem to be learning so much, stumbling up some kind of steep learning curve. But self-compassion isn’t necessarily positive self-talk. Self-compassion is simply recognizing what you’re feeling in any given moment, and that it’s okay. When I feel my heart begin to race as I sit down in front of that mic, I can simply tell myself, “Right now I’m having a moment of anxiety.” This has been more helpful to me than resisting the anxiety, which seems to intensify it. Leave room for some positive self-talk, but also leave some room for, “This is really difficult,” and even, “I don’t know if I can do this.”

Practicing on the day of the exam: I’ve recommended in past posts to not practice the day of the exam, and that’s something that works for me. I don’t want anything undermining my confidence on exam day. On the other hand, I’ve heard other trainers recommend that you practice with something that is easy for you on exam day. Surely this is to boost your confidence. If that’s the case, I’d practice with something you know is easy for you because you’ve practiced with it before.

When I took my healthcare and court certification exams, I didn’t practice on exam day. When I took my exams for grad school, I did shadowing on my exams days (there were four), just to have the feel for listening and speaking at the same time. I also had the habit of shadowing every day before I began my practice, so that worked for me.

Practicing interpreting is a necessary part of what we do to get better. When we have the skills to confront our anxiety, we can overcome it on exam day.

By Liz Essary

This article first appeared on www.atanet.org

IEO prepares interpreters for court certification exam, as well as NBCMI and CCHI certification exam.

How Public Speaking Skills can Help Interpreters

Besides being an interpreter and a translator for over 20 years, I have also taught public speaking courses and presented at interpreters’ symposiums and other professional meetings.

Speaking in public requires a high level of involvement with the subject matter and the preparation of the adequate delivery, depending on the objective and the occasion.

Communication facilitated by interpreters is a dynamic process, not a mechanic one.  Interpreters aim at transferring the “meaning.”  Since it occurs in a group context, the opportunity of a connection is automatically established.

Interpreters can greatly benefit from speech making skills and strategies on how to manage their nervousness in public.

As interpreters, we face many situations; we meet a variety of people with different backgrounds and understanding of the language exchange.  This may occur before the actual interpreting session and once assignments have been completed.  We represent an agency or ourselves.  Whether functioning as a medium of communication or as cultural brokers, we are in a position to enhance our professional image and degree of effectiveness through the acquisition of speech building skills.

Here are some of the skills interpreters can benefit from:

  1. Focusing on the purpose of the meeting – this step helps with staying on track
  2. Organizing the ideas/concepts in a logical manner
  3. Varying the tone and pace to keep the attention going
  4. Providing visuals, if necessary or helpful – this step strengthens the retention degree of the information.
  5. Interacting and involving others in the conversation – this step helps in making sure everyone is on the same page
  6. Complying with time limitations
  7. Displaying confidence by concentrating on our objective
  8. Communicating in an ethical manner – interpreters have a powerful profession and can, therefore, exercise an influence

This is a work in progress.  There is always something new to learn and abilities to refine.  Of course, there is also the element of nervousness that we want to get under control. These skills enhance the degree of credibility and a trust-developing connection.  The end result is a more gratifying experience for the interpreter and a lasting memory in the minds of the people encountered.

How can we reach a level of comfort? We can start by allowing a degree of tension that can energize us.  We can also draw inspiration from previous encounters. Experience makes us stronger.  By adopting a process of visualization, we can envision the encounter to be a gratifying learning opportunity.

Will my voice tremble? Will all eyes and ears heavily concentrate on me? What if I forget something? What if they ask me a challenging question? Most of us have heard one or more of these little voices inside our heads before walking into an unknown scenario.

There are also techniques we can adopt to decrease the level of tension:

  1. Write down your fears. Then, look back at the list and scratch out, one by one, the fears that will not likely produce a catastrophe or another terribly embarrassing moment.
  2. Mentally practice the answers to inquiries you can anticipate.
  3. Utilize relaxing techniques: prayer, breathing exercises, muscular or mental relaxation are some examples.
  4. Have on speed-dial someone who can give you a word of encouragement.
  5. Focus on the moment as an opportunity to learn and grow.
  6. Engage in opportunities to talk and share with other interpreters.  This is one of the most effective ways to realize we have similar concerns and that we can draw strength from one another.

I like the approach to nervousness that comes from cognitive therapy, which allows us to transform a negative thought into a positive and constructive one.

According to the American Institute for Cognitive Therapy (2009), cognitive therapy is a short-term form of remedy to treat a variety of psychological and psychiatric conditions.  We can identify distortions or perceptions resulting into negative thought patterns; then we can work on changing our gloomy thoughts into optimistic ones. Anderson (2014) points out that we can visualize the best part of the day, or encounter, and be thankful of the event.

How can I apply cognitive therapy to intimidating scenarios?  I build a mindset that allows me to focus on the positive side of the experience. I know I am capable to doing a good job and answer potential questions.  I continue to engage in opportunities for professional development; so I have acquired knowledge and confidence.  The encounter will go well.  I will research the areas I discover I know less about.  I will be even more prepared the next time around.

If you tend to be a perfectionist, and I will personally welcome you to the club, remember that we are the ones who tend to be more conscious of our movements and register correctness.  A less than perfect exchange is not the end of the world (I am not referring to the interpreting session per se, of course).  A slightly disappointing event can still help us put things in perspective and accept the frustrating moment as part of life, yet with a possibility of an even better outcome the time around.

 

By Rita Pavone

This blog first appeared on www.najit.org

 

Join our webinar on Public Speaking Skills for Interpreters by Rita Pavone on May 22.

If you can’t make it, the video recording will be available after.

Featured Interpreter: Robin Byers-Pierce, CSC, BEI IV, Court-Certified, VRI Manager at Bromberg

Q: How long have you been an interpreter and why/how did you get started in the field?

A: I started interpreting in 1975. For a simple reason: The Rehab Act of 1975 was passed requiring interpreters for certain situations, and the government realized they did not have many. A federal grant was given to several universities around the country to establish interpreter training programs. NITC, National Interpreter Training Consortium, was founded and offered scholarships to people who were interested in going into the field of interpreting. Pre-existing ASL skills were not required but preferred for the first few rounds of awards. I was accepted into the program and started school for the spring semester.

Q: What was your first interpreting job?

A: I have generally worked as a community interpreter. One of my first jobs was interpreters for a Skills Training Center that taught auto mechanics and carpentry skills.

Q: How do you prepare for assignments?

A: This depends on the job. For medical and legal, I review relevant terminology. Often we go in without any information, but I try to obtain as much as I can before the appointment. Agencies can often provide some background information.

Q: What was the funniest/most interesting experience on the job?

A: My favorite all time job was interpreting for Tommy Chong (Canadian American comedian). He made fun of me and made a prop of me plus had me teach the whole audience a bad word. Actually, he kept repeating it and instructed the audience to follow along. I was quite amused and entertained.

Q: What was the saddest experience on the job?

A: Hands down, interpreting for a mother in childbirth and the baby was stillborn.

Q: Who is your role model and why?

My two role models are Reuben Pois and Annette Long. From my grandfather, I learned how to sign, and his great sense of humor shaped me. My mother taught me so much. Her wisdom and kindness shaped me into who I am now. She also taught me how to be an interpreter, and for all of that, I cannot begin to express my thanks. I did send her a thank you card later in my life for my birthday every year for not killing me when I was a teenager. Her self-control was admirable.

Q: Which social media do you use, if any? If you do, what are your most favorite pages/accounts/groups to read?

A: I do use Facebook, but mostly it is a mode for me to contact colleagues and stay in touch with family and friends.

Q: What are your favorite movies/literature in or about ASL? Can you recommend something to our readers?

A: My favorite book is Seeing Voices by Dr. Oliver Sacks. The book is divided into two sections, and for anyone working with the Deaf community, the first part of the book is a must. Although there are many newer studies, The Signs of Language by Edward Klima and Ursula Bellugi are still my favorites.

Q: Which stereotype about Deaf culture would you like to eliminate? What are your favorite things about Deaf culture or ASL language?

A: I would eliminate the stereotype that all people with hearing are the same. Just as with the general community, there are nice people and not so nice people.

I love the visual-spatial nature of the language. An event can be relayed with clarity in ASL that no spoken language can convey.

Q: What advice would you give to an up and coming interpreter?

A: Knowing the community you serve is primary. Don’t expect to save the world – you are “The Equalizer”, you make the world the same for hearing people or English speakers as it is for Deaf people or non-English speakers.

Q: How did you prepare for your certification exam? What was the most difficult? Can you share resources that helped you?

A: RID and the BEI offer materials to study. I highly suggest interpreters obtain and know the material. The Code of Ethics and the Canons of Ethical Behavior of all fields are similar, and knowing the correct ethical decision is crucial.

Practice interpreting television and radio. Professional speakers are trained to be clear and very fast. If you are comfortable with this rapid pace, when you go in for your test – it will seem slow.

Q: What do you do to develop your professional skills? Webinars, conferences? If the latter, which conferences do you prefer and why?

A: I consider myself a learn-a-holic. I am always seeking ways to enhance my interpreting skills which include adding vocabulary and an understanding of a variety of fields. All of the above is how I do professional development.

Q: Is there anything you feel lacking in educational options out there? If you were to choose the topic for a new webinar or course, what would it be?

A: One thing I like about the IEO and the webinar series is that they are for interpreters who already have the basic knowledge. Conferences are so often providing training for those at an entry level that it is hard to find something of interest to us vets.

Q: What would you like changed or improved in the industry?

A: I love the field that I have chosen. Though I love road trips, the daily grind of 100-500 miles a day was tedious and environmentally unsound. VRI solved this problem, and as the platforms improve their stability, it gets better every day.

Q: What is the most important to be successful as an interpreter, in your opinion?

A: Be thick-skinned. People will take their frustrations out on you. Know the difference between critique, which will help make you better, and someone who is taking their frustration out on you. Learn something every place you go.

 

Robin on LinkedIn.

Featured interpreter: Karla R. (Shetter) Grathler, CMI – Spanish, Farmworker Health Program Coordinator at Shawnee Health Service

8-hour long interpreting for labor had me as exhausted as future mom to be

Q: How long have you been an interpreter and why/how did you get started in the field?

A: I have been an interpreter in the U.S since 2007. I started in the field when a local language services agency was hiring medical interpreters.

Q: What was your first interpreting job?

A: My first interpreting job was our local hospital in Carbondale, IL

Q: What would you like changed or improved in the industry?

A: Better hourly rates for full-time medical interpreters. It seems like the high pay rates are mostly for freelance interpreters in big cities. To require National Certification to perform as Medical Interpreters. I see many bilingual individual who perform either as freelancer or as part of the interpreters’ staff who have not even taken the minimum 40-hr training. To me, this poses a legal danger for organizations and may cause more harm than benefits to the patients due to the risk of miscommunication leading to misdiagnosis and wrong medical treatment.

Q: What was the funniest/most interesting experience on the job?

A: Funniest: At the end of a very long and stressful day, I was interpreting for a medical visit and instead of interpreting into the opposite language, I was repeating what the patient said in Spanish and what the doctor said in English. Both of them looked at me puzzled and then we all started to laugh. I deeply apologized and brought my brain back to the right path..lol!!

Interpreting for a delivery: Interpreting for a pregnant patient who was in labor during my whole shift. I ended up as exhausted as the brave mom-to-be. It was exhausting to interpret statements conveying feelings of pain and discomfort for 8 hours straight.

Q: What was the saddest experience on the job?

A: To interpret for when a doctor had to give tragic news to a mom. Her baby did not make after a horrible car accident.

Q: How do you prepare for assignments?

A: I try to have a good night sleep as much as I can. I keep myself hydrated during the day. Learn about the reason for the medical visit and review possible terminology.

Q: Which social media do you use, if any? If you do, what are your most favorite pages/accounts/groups to read?

A: I use LinkedIn. I think it is good way to network with other professionals. I am a member of the IMIA as well. I love the articles posted on the IEO site. I share most of the articles with my interpreter staff at our monthly meetings.

Q: What are your favorite movies/literature in your native language? Can you recommend something to our readers?

A: I am reading “El Filtro Burbuja: Cómo la Red decide lo que leemos y lo que pensamos”. Escrito por Eli Pariser. Very interesting narration and viewpoint of how media feeds the people exactly what they (the people) want to hear. The way we are exposed to information, news etc. is mostly according to our likes and preferences. We tend to limit ourselves nowadays and we are not opened to go beyond our likes and preferences.

Q: What advice would you give to an up and coming interpreter?

A: I would advise anyone who wants to become an interpreter to expose him/herself to different cultures related to the language pair he/she will be interpreting in. It is important to be fluent in the used languages, but also to be familiar and understand the cultural differences. Another important advice would be to build a terminology list of colloquial terms in both languages, this way when speakers utilize those kind of terms, the interpreter will be ready to convey accurate interpretation and perform his/her conduit role fully.

Q: Which stereotype about your native culture would you like to eliminate? What are your favorite things about your native culture or language?

A: I am originally from Lima, Peru. Something I have been asked before is if Peruvians have seen tall buildings, if we use technology, do we have cars, other than llamas, LOL!! I explain that Peru as many other countries has both rural and urban areas. I tell them llamas are mostly in the highland and they are used as pack animals and for their wool.

My favorite thing is the beauty of our geography in the three main regions. The coastal region bounded by the Pacific Ocean, the highlands located in the Andean heights and the Amazon Jungle. And I love my Spanish language. It sounds so beautiful to me. If you asks people from other South American countries, they would say that Peruvians speak like if they are singing.

Q: Who is your role model and why?

A: My role model is my mom for sure. A woman who did not have the opportunity to even finish middle school but when she became a mom she sacrificed everything she had to create opportunities for her daughters. All of us have college degrees and each of us are contributing to our communities in different ways. I feel that is the legacy my mom wanted to leave for us.

Q: What do you do to develop your professional skills? Webinars, conferences? If the latter, which conferences do you prefer and why?

A: I am constantly reviewing my medical terminology. I make sure I write down and find the correct equivalent in the target language to be prepared for the next time I come across the terminology. I attend as many webinars as I can. I maintain contact with other interpreters through IMIA and Proz.com

Q: Is there anything you feel lacking in educational options out there? If you were to choose the topic for a new webinar or course, what would it be?

A: More medical interpreting education on mental health. Interpreting for counseling scenarios to me is a different ball game. The interpreter is constantly interpreting messages that convey feelings and emotions for almost an hour non-stop. I wish there were more resources to help prepare for interpreting situations like those.

Q: How did you prepare for the certification exam? What was the most difficult? Can you share resources that helped you?

A: I studied as much medical terminology as I could. I had someone reading 3 to 4 sentence statements out loud for me and then I would interpret.

I also recorded statements in both English and Spanish, then I played those so I could interpret.

Resources I used were: Medline Plus, Proz.com, IMIA, a voice recorder.

Q: What is the most important to be successful as an interpreter, in your opinion?

A: The most important is to love what you do. To have a heart for service. We have such a big responsibility to make sure what the two parties that speak different languages are communicating with accuracy and completeness, so the outcome they are looking for is positive and effective.

 

Featured Interpreter: Caroline Croskery, English/Farsi

“Interpreter! INTERPRET!!!” he shouted

With this interview we are starting a new rubric Featured Interpreter. The goal of it is to advocate the importance of our profession, share useful tips and experiences and highlight some of the best professionals in the field.

Caroline Croskery has been speaking Persian for many years. She was born in the United States and moved to Iran at the age of twenty-one. She holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Iranian Studies from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) where she graduated Cum Laude. For many years, she has been active in four fields of specialization: language teaching, translation, interpretation and voice-over acting.

During her thirteen years living in Iran, she taught English, translated, and dubbed Iranian feature films into English. After returning to live in the United States, she began a career as a court interpreter in 1998 and is currently a Missouri State Registered Farsi court and medical interpreter.

Q: Caroline, how long have you been an interpreter and why/how did you get started in the field?

A: I began as a court interpreter for LA County Superior Courts in 1998 after becoming a State of California Registered Farsi Interpreter through the Judicial Council of California. In 2016 I became a Missouri State Registered Farsi Interpreter. I am a court interpreter, a medical interpreter, as well as a literary translator. I translate bestselling novels from Persian (Farsi) into English and have thirteen books on Amazon.

Q: What was your first interpreting job?

A: My first day on the job is a day I remember well. I had taken a language exam and gone through an orientation that dealt with ethics and overall dos and don’ts of interpreting in the courtroom. But I arrived on the job with no actual experience. I remember not being sure about what to do.

The court proceedings began and I was standing there next to the defendant waiting for something to happen. I guess I thought that things would stop and I would have the opportunity to consecutively interpret what had been said.

Then the judge shouted something that jolted me into action like a race-horse out of the gate.

“Interpreter! INTERPRET!!!” he shouted. And I was off! My career in simultaneous court interpreting began with a jolt!

Q: What was the funniest/most interesting experience on the job?

A: I was called to interpret for senior citizen who was a serial jay-walker. This time, she was certain that she was going to be put away for life. She was so frightened of the judge that it was all I could do to assuage her fears and assure her that the judge would deal with her fairly. I informed her that talking to the judge was her only good option. She finally gulped down her reticence and together, we walked into the courtroom.

The judge knew this lady. He had seen her there many times before. This time, his tactic was to perform a little drama and hopefully scare her out of repeat offending!

Putting on very serious airs, the judge announced in a deep, scary voice, “You’re back! I see that you have violated the law again.”

“Yes, sir,” she answered, shaking with suspense.

Drawing out the weighty words, the judge interrogated her, “And what did you do?”

Bypassing the interpreter, she blurted out her confession, “Johnny Walker! Johnny Walker!”

Everybody in the courtroom smiled. The judge talked with her in length about the danger she was creating, not only primarily for herself, but for the oncoming cars and traffic as well. She was fined, and hopefully learned her lesson.

Q: What was the saddest experience on the job?

A: Most certainly the saddest experience I have ever had on the job was a case involving both murder and grave mental illness. The saddest part for me, is knowing that this might have been avoided if the perpetrator had been under psychiatric care to begin with.

Q: What would you like changed or improved in the industry?

A: Two things come to mind. New interpreters need mentoring, as I did. Perhaps a requirement for new interpreters to spend 20 hours in an actual courtroom before their first day on the job. They could be given an on the job orientation packet to accomplish, to acquaint them with various courtroom roles and procedures. Necessary forms could be translated for court use, which would also acquaint them with the specific vocabulary used in that courtroom.

Secondly, I believe that ALL interpreters should have state qualification in order to enter the job force. We have too many people entering the field of interpreting who are not qualified and cannot pass the state exams.

Q: How do you prepare for assignments?

A: Simultaneous interpreting involves levels of skills. Knowing two languages at native level is not sufficient to be a good interpreter. The other skill is a more mechanical skill: the ability to listen while speaking. A simultaneous interpreter must listen at the same time he or she is speaking.

To warm up before an assignment, while driving in the car, I switch on an English talk radio station. English is my mother tongue. I practice simply repeating aloud, the exact words I hear on the radio. I do this for about fifteen minutes. Then I switch to a Farsi talk radio station. I do the same thing. Then I begin interpreting what I hear in Farsi, into English. Finally, I switch back to the English talk radio station, and interpret what I hear in English, into Farsi.

The mechanical aspect of listening to language while speaking gets more and more automatic the more you practice. But there is still a third element, and that is the supervisory role the brain must have over this whole mechanical procedure, so that you are listening not only for the words and sentences, but that you are also hearing what is being said – you are comprehending what is being said. An alarm can go off in your mind when something goes awry, something doesn’t make sense, etc.

Q: Are you certified? If yes, how did you prepare for the exam? What was the most difficult? Can you share resources that helped you?

A: There is currently no “certification” for the Farsi language, although I was tested in both English and Farsi in order to become what they call State “Registered” Farsi Interpreter. The written exam was in English. But I had oral examinations in both English and Farsi.

One preparation resource that I enjoy greatly is called The Interpreter’s Gym by Steven Sanford of Boston, MA. This is a free tool that you can find on Sound Cloud.

Q: What is the most important to be successful as an interpreter, in your opinion?

A: It is most important to be conscientious, diligent and have a good attitude for success as an interpreter. An interpreter must have boundless energy, a sharp mind and a caring heart. An interpreter has no ego; the interpreter isn’t a character in this movie at all. The interpreter is a facilitator of communication for parties that would otherwise not be able to communicate. An interpreter can never pass judgement into the work. Whatever fly might fall into the ointment, an interpreter’s job is to bring the issue to the attention of the judge for the judge to decide. An interpreter must love language to the point of never allowing a day to go by without learning something new.

You can contact Caroline via email

 

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